The Institute of Hydraulic and Coastal Engineering of the Bremen City University of Applied Sciences (IWA) and the Alfred-Wegener-Institute (AWI) launch WestSTRAND, an operational Coastal Monitoring Station installed at Weststrand in List, Sylt. WestSTRAND is intended for observation and assessment of coastal processes during normal and extreme (storm) events in real-time. The two institutions, IWA and AWI, are collaborating to obtain real-time information on long-term coastal processes during mean load periods as well as development and progression of storm surges and accompanying coastal phenomena such as rip- and longshore-currents as well as coastal erosion/dune-over-wash.
Water energy is mostly used for electric production and for engine cooling of nuclear and coal power plants. Within the cooperative project SynTHERM prototypes of a so-called Thermo Screen shall be developed for synergetic use of kinetic and thermal use of surface water. The project is executed in cooperation with the industrial manufacturer SEAB GmbH and the heating, ventilation and air conditioning company Tegelbeckers GmbH as well the external consultant Max Loidl.
Aim of the project 'HWS-Bildung' is the developing and piloting of training modules for dike defence and flood control at the Federal School in Hoya of the German Technical Relief Organisation THW focussing on the adaptation to climate change. The revision and adaptation of the existing training courses refers especially to the following topics:
Additionally, concepts shall be developed to sensitize also non-organised people, i.e. non-members of the THW, fire brigades and other relief organisations, regarding flood protection and climate change adaptation and to offer these potential helpers a basic training in dike defence and flood control.
The following research institutions and institutions are involved in the cooperative project:
Funded by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety BMUB on the basis of a resolution of the German Bundestag.
The aim of the project DeichSCHUTZ is the development of an innovative protection system to stabilize fragile dikes during flood events. The protection system, laid at the outer slope of a water-loaded dike, shall decrease the seepage line inside the dike and shall thereby stabilise the fragile construction without further load application at the inner dike slope. Hereby, a dike stabilisation shall be enabled by minor use of material, personnel, and time. Amongst others, a testing dike has been built at the Federal School Hoya of the German Relief Organisation THW to develop and test models and prototypes.
The following institutions and companies are involved in the cooperative project:
Funded by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research BMBF on the basis of a resolution of the German Bundestag.
Aim of the research project DeichKADE is the development of a mobile water-filled tube construction, which can be installed on a dike crest without further anchoring enabling a fast and simple protection against overtopping. The tube constructions shall be safe and efficient in the deployment and shall be installed and dismantled with minor use of material, personnel, transport, and time. The constructions shall substitute conventional dams made from sandbags.
The following research institutions and companies are involved in the cooperative project:
Funded by the German Environment Foundation DBU.
Research group FLUTSCHUTZ: Aquadot in cooperation with the companies Karsten Daedler - Special Manufacturing of Membranes and Fabrics, Trittau as well as Optimal - Membrane and Environmental Technology GmbH, Menden, since 2011
Based on the research project HWS-Mobil funded by the German Ministry for Economy and Technology and finished in May 2011 the involved companies are developing mobile flood protection systems for emergency use and are bringing them to series-production readiness. The developed constructions offer the following characteristics:
Im Jahr 2012 wurden drei im Forschungsverbund flutzschutz entwickelte Konstruktionen vom TÜV-Nord für den Einsatz im abwehrenden Hochwasserschutz geprüft und zertifiziert:
Die FLUTSCHUTZ Quellkade wurde während des Hochwassers im Jahr 2013 von der THW-Ortsgruppe Hamburg-Nord erfolgreich an der Elbe eingesetzt. Zudem erfolgte ein Testaufbau des flutzschutz Auflastfilters am Elbedeich bei Dömitz durch die THW-Ortsgruppe Hamburg-Altona.
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Bärbel Koppe erhielt den Möbius Förderpreis für Innovation 2014. Den Rahmen für die Auszeichnung bot der 58. Kongress der Hafentechnischen Gesellschaft e. V. (HTG) in Berlin. Die Hamburger Werner-Möbius-Stiftung würdigt mit dem im zweijährigen Zyklus vergebenen Preis Fachleute, die zu den Gebieten Infrastruktur, Consulting, Industrie oder Logistik eine herausragende, bereits in der Praxis angewandte Innovation beigetragen haben. Ausgezeichnet wurden die von Prof. Koppe im FLUTSCHUTZ-Konsortium entwickelten Deichverteidigungssysteme 'Quellkade FLUTSCHUTZ' und 'Auflastfilter FLUTSCHUTZ'.
Coasts are forming the narrow interface between land and sea facing strong natural loads from tides, winds and waves as well as high population density and accumulation of assets. Residents of coastal settlements have always put a great effort in protecting their properties against flooding and coastal erosion. Up to now, development policies and land-use regulations have not been able to stop concentration processes at the coasts. With anticipated climate change and associated sea level rise expenditures for protection measures will rise.
For these reasons, coastal risk reduction will rely not least on improved technical protection measures. These have to be environmental-friendly, adaptive to new load situations and cost-effective in construction and maintenance. For the protection of erosive sandy beaches soft structures on the basis of geotextiles offer significant environmental, structural and economical advantages compared to hard structures made of stones and concrete.
Within the project existing soft coastal protection structures in South Africa and Germany are investigated and enhanced with respect to their stability, functionality and sustainability. The project works contributes to overcome existing obstacles for an extensive beneficial use of geotextiles in the coastal environment in South Africa, Germany and beyond. Future research requirements will be defined and a follow-up joint research project will be prepared in co-operation with South African and European partners.
Funded by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF) via the International Office of the BMBF.
The potential of water-filled tube constructions for mobile flood control can only be employed if the products are developed properly on the basis of analytical and theoretical methods. The aim of the joint project is the development of constructions that can be utilized reliably and efficiently for flood protection. The works are based on theoretical knowledge in the fields hydrology, hydraulic engineering, geotechnics, structural design and flood protection management as well as on technological knowledge in the fields material, joining techniques, cutting and manufacturing know-how.
Funded by the Federal Ministry for Economy and Technology on the basis of a resolution of the German Bundestag.
The objective of the project is to develop and validate a new decision support system (DSS) for the risk assessment and management for the prevention and/or reduction of the negative impacts caused by global change and human activities on the water/sediment/soil system at river basin scale in fluvial ecosystems. The DSS will combine and integrate environmental and geo-physical data from earth observation systems, on-site sensors and geo-referenced information, advanced computer simulation and graphical visualisation methods and artificial intelligence tools for generating knowledge contributing to the assessment of the ecological impact of hazards in fluvial ecosystems and the design of effective response actions maximising the integrity and safety of the ecosystem and human life.
Natural hazards have become natural disasters since people settle in flood areas. The need of protection is increasing with rising population density and concentration of valuables in low lying coastal and river areas in the last decades. Therefore, the demand for technical protection measures is growing.
Densely populated areas mostly offer little space for permanent flood protection schemes like dykes. On the other hand, space saving permanent measures like vertical flood walls cut off traffic lines and obstruct the view. Therefore, urban areas are often poorly protected against flooding despite of high concentrations of valuables on site.
Recently, more and more mobile protection schemes are on the market promising to fit both requirements: protection in case of flooding and open access to the floodplain in the remaining time. The protection systems differ in material, construction, height, and permanent facilities. They can be divided in structures made of sandbags, plates, concrete elements, basins, flaps, trestles, and geomembrane containers.
For practical use, a systematisation of the structures with regard to reliability, assembling time, purchase and maintenance costs is necessary.
The Institute for Hydraulic and Coastal Engineering of the University of Rostock together with the Governmental Authority for Environment and Nature in Rostock (StAUN Rostock) of the Federal State of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern in Germany, which is responsible for planning and permission of coast conservation and flood protection projects in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, have performed a data management project "Hydrographical Data MV". Main objective of this project was to make data from all available hydrographical and meteorological measurements directly accessible and therefore usable for the StAUN Rostock.
The project covered all internal and external data sources. All data has been stored into a data base system. Another objective was to process the data and, hence, to generate a homogeneous data base for the application to coastal engineering projects.
The most densely populated areas in the world are the coastal zones. For the requirements of residence, agriculture and recreation, people defend their settlements against the erosive forces of the oceans or even reclaim lands from the ocean to extend the usable area and resources. The development of coastal zones is a very important topic, especially in countries were many different interests in the use of coastal areas exist, like Taiwan and Germany.
Taiwan is a crowded island with a population of 21 millions people on an area of 36,000 km² only. Moreover, two third of the area is mountaneous with no settlements and agriculture possible. The hydraulic conditions of the Taiwanese coastal zone are very special. There is huge tidal influence with more than 4 meters water level differences in the western coastline of Taiwan, whilst the eastern coast is facing the direct impact of swell propagated from the open Pacific Ocean. There is a severe sea state due to the monsoon waves in the winter season, and a heavy attack of typhoon waves in the summer season. These loads lead to severe coastal erosion problems and flood events. Another problem is a high land sinking rate in some parts of the island related to a sinking groundwater level due to an intensive agricultural use of the coastal area. The objective of coastal engineering is to provide perspectives for a sustainable development for the vulnerable coastal zone facing disaster scenarios as well as meeting the demands for the preservation of nature.
The German coasts are located in the zone of predominant westerly winds due to their geographic position on approximately 55-degree northern latitude. Storms from south-westerly directions can become violent at the North Sea coast and often cause heavy tidal storm surges that can lead to high water levels of 4 m above MSL combined with a heavy sea state, especially in bights. In 1962 more than 300 people died due to a storm surge at the German coast of the North Sea. The Baltic Sea has nearly no tidal influence, but north-easterly storms can cause high water levels of more than 3 m above MSL, as happened in 1872, when more than 60 people died. Serious erosion problems exist at the German coastlines of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Mean erosion rates of about 1 m per year occur. Today, many coastal areas are located within national parks or nature reserves with strict regulations often leading to conflicts with the needs of settlements, agriculture, and recreation.
The current state of knowledge about the development of the coastal zone is essentially based on experiences acquired over generations. The consideration of the ecological balance in multifunctional areas like coastal zones is relatively new. A break-through of the idea of sustainable development was reached with the Declaration of Rio in 1992. Monitoring of oceanographic phenomena is a major way to acquire knowledge about the environment and should be strengthened in future.
The Coastal Ocean Monitoring Center (COMC) of the National Cheng Kung University (NCKU) in Tainan, Taiwan, R.O.C. has started an oceanographic observation network around the island of Taiwan. The measuring system consists of pile stations and buoys, which were developed by COMC to meet the demands of local oceanographic environment. The measured data are: Wave energy spectra and respective wave heights, periods and directions, wind speed and wind direction, water and air temperature, and atmospheric pressure.
The Institute for Hydraulic and Coastal Engineering (IWR) at the University of Rostock, Germany is involved in actual coastal problems in a manifold way, as the coastal zone management of the Island of Sylt, North Sea, and coastal erosion studies along the Baltic Sea. Recently a joint research project with the University of Kiel and different German governmental institutions on the "Influence of Cliff Coast Erosion at the Baltic Sea on Dynamics of Adjacent Shallow Water Areas" was executed. The basic objective of the research programme is the determination of the relationship between the hydrodynamic impacts, the decline of the cliff, and the development of the shoreline. The programme was executed on the basis of field investigations and theoretical approaches.
For both institutes, the COMC and the IWR, the exchange of knowledge and experiences is of great benefit.
Because of many common interests within vitaal Exchange Programme PPP "Analysis of Wave Measurements and Assessment of Field Data" the German Academic Science Service DAAD and the Chinese National Science Council NSC financed the travel expenses for the exchange of young scientists of the NCKU and the IWR.
The vitaal exchange programme was running from June 1998 through December 1999. Within the programme an exchange of three Chinese and four German engineers was arranged.
For both institutes, the COMC and the IWR, the exchange of knowledge and experiences is of great benefit.
Because of many common interests within vitaal Exchange Programme PPP "Analysis of Wave Measurements and Assessment of Field Data" the German Academic Science Service DAAD and the Chinese National Science Council NSC financed the travel expenses for the exchange of young scientists of the NCKU and the IWR. The vitaal exchange programme was running from June 1998 through December 1999. Within the programme an exchange of three Chinese and four German engineers was arranged.
During their stay at the IWR, the Chinese colleagues worked within the wave data measuring research project "Influence of Cliff Coast Erosion at the Baltic Sea on Dynamics of Adjacent Shallow Water Areas" and on the application of high resolution (time and space) directional wave data in coastal engineering. The Chinese colleagues adapted their methods for the determination of three dimensional sea state spectra on the existing measuring instruments of the IWR consisting of Datawell buoys "Directional Wave Rider" and evaluated the directional structure of the sea state. The following evaluation methods were used: Finite Fourier Series Method (FFSM), Maximum Likelihood Method (MLM), Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) and Bayesian Approach Method (BAM).
In addition, the scientists visited the Franzius-Institut of the University of Hannover and the Institute for Hydraulic and Coastal Engineering of the University of Braunschweig. In the beginning of December 1999 a technical excursion to coastal areas in Denmark and Germany was made. This tour included workshops in different Danish institutions like the Danish Hydraulic Institute (DHI) in Horsholm and the Hydraulic Engineering Administration Centre in Hvide Sande as well as the visit of important buildings in coastal areas like the Great Belt Crossing in Denmark and the Storm-Flood-Barrier in the River Eider, Germany. Furthermore a "Joint Workshop on Measurements of Inhomogeneous Wave Fields at the Coast of Taiwan" under the leadership of the GKSS Research Centre, Geesthacht was arranged in December 1999 in Lauenburg.
On their visit in Taiwan, the German engineers worked within the research projects "The Spectral Evolution in Shallow Water" and "Analysis of Extreme Waves" of the Coastal Ocean Monitoring Center (COMC). These projects included measurements of directional sea states at the Eastern and Western coast of Taiwan. During the exchange, different concepts of measurement (objectives, technical instruments and evaluation methods) in Germany and in Taiwan were discussed in detail. The visits allowed an intimate view on the Taiwanese measurement project, also with regard to the assessment of technical and organisational conditions. One part of the work centres in the adaptation of statistical methods for the evaluation and the assessment of directional wave data to the sea state data at the Taiwanese coast provided by the COMC. A method for the evaluation of long-term directional wave data from short-term measurements, which was developed and applied at the IWR, was adapted to the wave data measured off the Taiwanese coast. It offers the possibility to evaluate long-term wave information based on wind-wave-correlation using long-term wind information.
The stays in Taiwan were also used for the preparation of and the participation in the "2nd German-Chinese Joint Seminar on Recent Developments in Coastal Engineering" in September 1999 at Tainan. This conference offered interesting lectures and discussions in the field of coastal engineering, both in Taiwan and in Germany.
Within the project work, the German colleagues gave a lecture at the department of Hydraulic and Ocean Engineering at the National Cheng Kung University about the studies at the University of Rostock and their actual research works. A technical excursion to the seaports Kaoshiung and Taichung and to the Institute for Marine and Harbour Technology Taichung gave an interesting glance at the engineering problems and the economic importance and power of Taiwanese ports.
In addition, the IWR produced a demo videotape titled "The Buoy" showing the installation and employment of COMC-buoys for the measurement of sea state off the Taiwanese coast.
The video shows the development and the employment of measuring buoys of the Coastal Ocean Monitoring Center (COMC) of the National Cheng Kung University in Tainan. The COMC establishes an oceanographic observation network around Taiwan. The measuring system consists of pile stations and buoys which were developed by COMC to fit the needs of the local oceanographic environment. The stations are located in shallow and in deeper water.
The measured data are: Wave energy spectra and respective wave heights, periods and directions, as well as wind speed and direction, water and air temperature, and atmospheric pressure.
The measurements will lead to improvements in: Coastal zone management, disaster prevention, weather forecasting, design of offshore and coastal structures, and navigation.
Made within the research project: "Analysis of wave measurements and assessment of field data" of the DAAD (Deutscher Akademischer Auslandsdienst -German Academic Exchange Organisation) and the NSC (National Science Council, Taiwan - R.O.C.).
Extremely heavy rainfalls in large parts of the Eastern Europe resulted in disastrous floods on the river Oder in the Czech Republic, in Poland and in Germany. The highest floodwater levels exceeded all those which had previously been recorded in many places. In addition, the flooding in Germany was exceptional because of its long duration.
This documentation shows the course of events in the German disaster zone, gives an impression of the complexity of protective measures and provides political and technical conclusions drawn from the Oder flooding for the future. Furthermore, the video explains the hydrological, geographical and historical background of the affected German Oder region and gives information about damage to technical high water protection systems and its prevention.
Authors: Baerbel Koppe and Manfred W. Juergens, Institut für Wasserbau, Universität Rostock 1997/98
Made with financial assistance by the "Bundesministerium für Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie".