Based on recent technical codes on type, extent and timing of required inspection and maintenance works the AQUADOT Engineering Company elaborated a guideline for inspection and maintenance of hydraulic structures in different coastal harbours in Northern Germany. Beside the definition of specific inspection and maintenance services for different materials and structural components the guideline contains indications for documentation and tender procedures of maintenance and rehabilitation works.
For improvement of the swimming conditions in the Seaside Resort at the Sund Promenade Stralsund the waterfront sheet pile wall was dismantled, a beach nourishment was executed and for prolongation of the retention time of sediments in the beach area wooden pile groins have been built at the southern and northern edge of the resort. Due to the tendency of silting up of the neighbouring recreational harbour the AQUADOT Engineering Company was commissioned to investigate the sediment transport in and around the Sea Resort Sund Promenade. The transport processes could be analysed and assessed based on bathymetric surveys, sediment examinations and current calculations.
In view of the aging hydraulic structures – approximately 30% of the German locks are already older than 100 years – effective inspection of waterfront structures and engineering constructions is getting more and more important. For the execution of main inspection works according to DIN 1076 at a waterfront stretch of more than 15 km along a federal waterway in urban environment the AQUADOT Engineering company worked out the required tender documents, examined the offers and supported the award of the contract. Subsequent to the execution of the inspection works, the inspection results of the single stretches have been evaluated, summarized and prioritised with respect to required rehabilitation and new construction works.
Within the conversion planning of different harbour facilities at the Lower Rhine the overall structural safety could be confirmed by static recalculations. Problems arised only for the proof of the rope force of 300 kN for a so-called Large Rhine Ship according to the EAU (Recommendations of the Committee for Waterfront Structures, Harbors and Waterways). Therefore, it has to be checked whether the local natural conditions allow a reduction of the applied rope forces or not.
After assessment of the site conditions the relevant rope forces have been assessed for different loading conditions and recommendations for action have been elaborated for different harbours.
Since the 1980s, a bathing site protected by a western and eastern jetty and a non-detached breakwater exists in Arnis at the Schlei. By now, a partly retreat of the strandline and a severe deposition of mud in a part of the bathing site is observed. Additionally, a sand deposit covers an area at the western jetty. To improve the bathing situation a remediation option had to be elaborated based on an assessment of the current morphological processes and a prognosis of future sedimentological and morphologic developments at the site.
Amongst others, the construction of a harbour basin is planned within the project 'Schleswig Auf der Freiheit'. The so-called Outer Harbour shall be built in front of the current coastline into the water body Schlei. For approval planning possible impacts of the utilisation of the water area have to be estimated.
The actual hydrological and morphological state was analysed and possible changes of currents and sediment transport processes in the wider project area caused by the planned measure have been assessed.
The assessment of the technical condition of hydraulic structures is based on structural inspections. As far as the condition found necessitates no further investigations and measures, the following annual cycle is valid in structural inspection work:
The Ingenieurgesellschaft AQUADOT offers a full service at all stages of inspection of hydraulic structures like moles and piers, revetments, quays, pontoons and their anchoring, dolphins, connecting bridges as well as service passages in piers and quays. All works are done by a team of highly qualified engineers of the fields hydraulic and coastal engineering, material testing and quality control and structural engineering as well as professional divers. Beneath the inspection work itself, the services include also the assessment of existing bearing capacities as well as the conception of repair and restoration works.
Im Zuge der bergbaulichen Sanierungsarbeiten in den Tagebauen Zwenkau und Cospuden bei Leipzig ist eine direkte Einleitung der Vorflut des Zwenkauer Sees in den Cospudener See zu planen und umzusetzen. Hierfür ist ein Verbindungskanal zwischen den Tagebauseen herzustellen, der seine Vorflutfunktion erfüllt und gleichzeitig mit Hilfe eines Schleusenbauwerks als schiffbare Verbindung dient.
Neben den durch die KUBENS Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Niederlassung Nürnberg, erarbeiteten Planungsleistungen für die schiffbare Gewässerverbindung Zwenkauer - Cospudener See wurden vom Vorhabenträger LMBV mbH Leipzig gutachterliche Leistungen zur Abschätzung der Sedimentdynamik vom Büro AQUADOT angefordert. Im Rahmen des Gutachtens waren die nach Füllung des Zwenkauer Sees und Öffnung des Verbindungskanals Zwenkauer - Cospudener See zu erwartenden Sedimentumlagerungen am Kanalbeginn und am Kanalende abzuschätzen sowie Aussagen zu ggf. erforderlichen Schutzbauwerken zu treffen. Letztere sollen einen sicheren und dauerhaften Betrieb der Gewässerverbindung zwischen den beiden Tagebauseen gewährleisten, in dem sie unerwünschten Erosions- bzw. Anlandungstendenzen an den folgenden geplanten Bauwerken entgegenwirken / Untersuchungsbereich Cospuden:
Within the urban development of the urban area at the inland waterway Teltowkanal the construction of a leisure harbour is planned.
In 2012, the Consultant AQUADOT developed a rough concept of the harbour for elaboration of the master plan of the planning area. Based on that, the Institute for Hydraulic and Coastal Engineering at the University of Applied Science Bremen under the responsibility of Prof. Koppe worked out the basic design of the harbour including conception of waterfront structures, moorings and land facilities.
Within the planning of coastal power plants the Consultant AQUADOT assesses wave loads on water intake facilities of power plants and gives recommendations on the installation, e.g. at locations at the Indian Ocean and in the Caribbean. Some of the water intake facilities are integrated in vertical embankment constructions, some of them are installed in coastal waters connected to the land by submerged pipelines.
Within the port expansion planning of the Port of Wismar the terminal facilities of the 2nd construction phase will be extended in northerly direction. The planning considers mainly vertical quay wall constructions with sheet pile walls for the new berths 1A to 1D of the Port of Wismar as well as for the new quay berth of the Waterways and Shipping Authority Luebeck, branch Wismar, which substitutes the existing jetty.
Commissioned by the Port of Wismar the Competence Centre for Construction M-V in cooperation with AQUADOT examined the wave load in the planning area based on numerical / analytical calculation methods in the current situation as well as considering the planned quay wall layout and different kinds of structural wave load reduction measures. For assessment of reflection coefficients of different quay wall constructions physical model tests have been executed.
To secure safe handling conditions at the planned berths of the Port of Wismar and calm conditions at the facilities of the Waterways and Shipping Authority a preferred option for the layout of the planned quay constructions and wave protection was developed on the basis of the wave evaluations in the year 2011. In 2013, modified plannings have been checked with respect to wave loads at neighbouring mooring locations.
Within the installation or substitution of the existing hydroelectric facilities hydraulic verifications are necessary with respect to planned water extraction rates, hydraulic parameters of the feeder canal, and layout of the facilities considering flood water level neutrality as well as fish migration. For the latter, components like screen rack, fish barrier in the lower reach of the feeder canal and fish pass have to be designed properly to guarentee the migration of native fishes at different runoffs despite the existing transversal structures.
AQUADOT works out the required hydraulic verifications on the basis of theoretical approaches and/or measured hydraulic parameters.
Westerly the harbour Sassnitz a marina with touristic offer is in the planning stage. In the approval procedure the question arised which hydrodynamic changes will have to be expected due to the planned construction works.
AQUADOT examined analytically and numerically the hydrodynamic condition in the planning area for the current situation and for the situation including the planned jetty construction of the marina. Furthermore, a preferable construction alternative was elaborated to minimize wave reflection in front of the jetties. The examinations include the assessment of expected changes of hydrodynamic parameters like sea state, current, and ice drift as well as changes in the sediment-dynamics in the wider planning area.
Seaports play a major role in the seaborne transport system, being the interface between transport, storage and production as well as different transportation modes like transshipment, inland navigation, railway and road transportation.
The Port Olpenitz GmbH is converting the former naval port Olpenitz near Kappeln into a holiday resort including a marina. The construction works include amongst others the raise of ground level elevation, construction of waterfront structures as well as renaturation measures.
AQUADOT supports the works by providing the design of sloped waterfront structures using locally available armour stones. Furthermore, AQUADOT reviews the influence of deconstruction of military and civil used installations on the protection level against flooding and coastal decline. Additionally, morphological changes at the beach Weidefelder Strand south of the project area is monitored yearly by AQUADOT.
Climate change bears the potential of a significant and persistent impact on technical infrastructure. The effects will probably be widespread and costly in contrast to influences of regionally and temporary acting extreme weather conditions. Therefore, early involvement of climate change aspects in planning processes is important to relieve expected resource constraints.
Initiated by the Hamburg Port Authority, AQUADOT worked out a guideline for port planners and authorities as well as terminal operators to identify relevant climate change impacts on and vulnerabilities of seaport development and operation. Furthermore, climate change adaptation measures in seaports are described in detail.
The sensitive hull of superyachts as well as the crew's high convenience standards require a secure and comfortable mooring system. AQUADOT designed a mooring system for a 60 m superyacht at a relatively short quay in a marina in Croatia. Engineering includes the determination of effective mooring loads and design of deadweight sinkers.
The Northern Corniche in Jeddah is one of the main leisure destinations in Saudi Arabia, with the 12 km section of the Red Sea coastline used intensively for tourism and leisure activities by the local population with international hotel chains and entertainment centres lining the seafront. The Waterfront Development Plan includes numerous coastal engineering facilities like water taxi berths, marinas, pocket beaches, jetties, and bridges. AQUADOT collaborated in the elaboration of tender documents for the relevant hydraulic and coastal engineering works in the Waterfront Development Project. Within the project, AQUADOT analyses relevant design parameters for the layout of the required coastal protection works with respect to wind data, water levels, sea state, and currents.
For preparation and safeguarding of the future flood protection for the city of Hamburg it is necessary to assess the present safety levels, to point out possible weak spots and to consider the requirements on flood protection systems also with respect to climate change.
Within the analysis the safety against flooding in Hamburg was assessed on the basis of the height of existing flood protection measures and the acting forces due to design flood water level and waves. AQUADOT developed a software procedure for calculation of overtopping rates at dikes and vertical walls including different approaches according to EUROTOP, 2007.
The preliminary planning of marinas at the Baltic Sea and at lakes focussed mainly on the assessment of loads from water levels, waves, and currents. Furthermore, issues related to the layout of harbour entrance channels, berths and traffic ways as well as conservation of good water quality within the harbour basin have been dealt with.
The port and terminal operators of the Port of Bremerhaven have invested and will invest in future considerable financial means to enable a smooth handling of current and predicted cargo. With the reconfiguration of the Osthafen new berths and additional operation area have been created. In 2010, the extension of the Kaiser Sluice to an effective width of 55 m and length of 305 m will allow the passage of modern RoRo ships. Furthermore, four new berths for container ships have been provided with the completion of the CT4 in autumn 2008.
Besides the waterfront works relevant measures on the landside of the terminals and the reorganisation of the hinterland infrastructure are necessary. This includes rearrangements on container terminals, concerning especially storage areas and loading facilities for railway and truck as well as construction of new administration and social buildings. Furthermore, the terminal hinterland connections have to be embedded in an overall traffic concept of the Port of Bremerhaven requiring amongst others shiftings and reallocations outside the terminal areas.
AQUADOT collaborated in the preparation of a port infrastructure concept for the Port of Bremerhaven with special respect to container traffic.
AQUADOT collaborated in a planning for a preliminary design for stepwise extension works until 2036 at Muuga Harbour and Paldiski South Harbour, Estonia. The planning included the installation of new facilities for the handling of the following goods: oil products and liquefied natural gas, container, general cargo, bulk cargo like scrap metal, grains and fertilizers, bio diesel, vegetable oil and RoRo, especially cars.
AQUADOT collaborated in a planning of Prof. Brinkmann concerning the reorganisation of a main part of the Port of Hamburg. A multi-stage development plan was worked out for the container terminal Steinwerder with respect to traffic, hydraulic and economic conditions. For the final stage of extension an annual handling volume of 3.5 millions standard containers (TEU) was estimated.
Within the conversion of the Pier 1 North of the Rostock Port into a ferry terminal and due to a modernisation of motors and propellers of landing ships it was necessary to re-evaluate the scour situation at the quay.
Aquadot worked out recommendations for scour protection of the ferry terminal based on soundings and calculations of scour development with respect to berthing manoeuvres.
The development concept Sund Promenade envisages constructional changes of the shoreline stabilisation along the promenade in Stralsund. AQUADOT analysed the influence of the planned measures on shoreline stability and on safety against flooding. The rate of sediment transport was assessed and possible measures to increase the retention time of sediments in the system were developed. In addition, the influences of the planned measures on adjacent coastal stretches and on a rearward inactive cliff were assessed.
Hessian Academy for Flood Protection Measures, Flood Research and Life-Guard
Within the training course "Flood Protection Advisor" of the Hessian Academy for Flood Protection Measures, Flood Research and Life-Guard Aquadot developed and presented the program modules Hydromechanics, Flood Protection in Urban Environments and Mobile Flood Protection. These modules have been continuously updated and presented at the Hessian Academy for Flood Protection Measures, Flood Research and Life-Guard in Wiesbaden in the years 2004 to 2006.
The module "Hydromechanics" comprises the hydro-mechanic basics of hydrostatics and hydrodynamics.
The module "Flood Protection in Urban Environments" discussed specific problems of flood protection in populated areas which are associated with limited space, interferences of the protection line with infrastructure, object protection, contamination precautions and backwater in drainage systems.
In the module "Mobile Flood Protection" different mobile systems are introduced and their possible applications are discussed with respect to available early warning time, required personnel and financial ressources, loads, assembly, storage and maintenance.